Male and female cross cousins are referred to as tavale. It is important for the presenter to always play down the offering, but those receiving will always talk up the offering: if it is small they will say it is great, the point is eloquence and humility. The term Fijian in this article refers to "indigenous Fijians" or "I Taukei"[1] as the term Fijian generally includes all citizens of Fiji. Just the day before I had said a sad goodbye to my family in Kentucky to start the long trip back to Australia. Cross cousins also have the responsibility of burying one another when they die. Men also refer to female cross cousins as tavale and women call men by the same instead of using their real name. This will then be carefully taken to the chief in his personal bilo (all others will drink of the same cup). Examples "In 1987, a Rajput man was arrested after the sati death of his daughter-in … Get full access and benefit from this site, Reset My password He then knows the Yaqona is a good mix and is ready to be served. One hundred days after the death the mourning is lifted and the various Taboos, or in Fijian Tabu, are lifted from the family members in what is called the Vakataraisulu ceremony. carpenters, craftsman, house or canoe builders). © 2020 Cemeteries & Crematoria Association of NSW. The grave site is then cemented in. These have not been indexed but the images from the registers can be browsed and downloaded: Birth registers of Indians in Fiji, 1895-1989; Death register of Indians, 1917-1989; Death registers of Fijians, 1877-1989 One of the most bizarre funeral traditions fro… The most famous and intricate designs are from the island of Vatulele. When a Hindu is approaching death, a priest should be contacted and the priest and the family should gather to be with the dying person. When a death occurs, related clans and family come together in a religious and social gathering to share their sorrow and to reaffirm the connections between them. Depending on the occasion and situation, three key ceremonies, which accord with other cultures, are: birth, death, and marriage. Remind Me My username. The term "Tavale" is used by those who are cross cousins for example the son or daughter of a father's sister or mother's brother. [2][3] Several Yavusa will belong to a certain land mass and comprise thereby the Vanua[2] (confederation of Yavusa)[3] Dr Asesela Ravuvu (1983, p. 76) describes the Vanua as: The living soul or human manifestation of the physical environment which the members have since claimed to belong to them and to which they also belong. The Ceremony Extras You'll Need to Buy (But Probably Haven't Thought of Yet) Practices. "Kaivata" or "Kai" may be used generally across the board to all Fijians, if they identify themselves within the same Province. [2] Several Mataqali will make up the larger tribe or Yavusa. Health Minister Ifereimi Waqainabete said the victim was a 66-year-old man who tested positive after returning from India, where he had undergone surgery for a long-standing heart condition. This relationship relates to people of Colo from Inland Viti Levu e.g. Hindus believe that it is the responsibility of each individual to continue the Hindu race. Megan Lee in her paper "Life in a Fijian Village", in Chapter 2, Social Structure and Organization of Naivuvuni Village, writes: Traditionally, it was from this group of relatives that a man would choose his wife although today this practice is not usually followed. I. Each province follows a similar pattern but with specific variations. The grave site is then cemented in. Marulan Cemetery controversy continues... Marulan Muslim Cemetery Update - Councillor will not sign letter to community, Delhi government planning to build green crematoriums. It involves both sides of the family, in which they present the couple with mats and other household practical items so they are able to begin their new home. Often, flowers or other objects to remember the deceased will be placed on the grave as a sign of respect. and everyone that attends holds the baby in their arms (to hold something in your arms in Fijian is roqota ). Disease and death were attributable to malevolent spirits in traditional Fijian culture. A further ceremony is held one year later. The following outlines a Yaqona ceremony in the Bauan manner (Bau: a prominent island and village of the Kubuna Confederacy in the province of Tailevu). 9 reviews. Fiji, a difference that is highly salient for understanding not only death, but the good life too. Fiji tribes were in constant warfare, for lands and life on the islands were patterned by violent conflicts between indigenous groups. Depending on the occasion and situation, three key ceremonies, which accord with other cultures, are: birth, death, and marriage. The culture of Fiji is a tapestry of native Fijian, Indian, European, Chinese, and other nationalities.Culture polity traditions, language, food costume, belief system, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance, and sports will be discussed in this article to give you an indication of Fiji's indigenous community but also the various communities which make up Fiji as a modern … At a Fijian kava ceremony or Sevusevu, the drink is prepared at the start of the ceremony and not in advance. He touches either side of the Tanoa and says “Taki vakavo Na Yaqona vaka Turaga” ( Now all may drink of the chiefs Yaqona) and will then clap twice. 2 reviews. Quick View. Leave your shoes outside the door when entering a home and keep in mind that it's also insulting to touch someone's head - which can be tempting when you are surrounded by wide-eyed, smiling children.If you are invited to drink kava, don'… Those who killed and ate the Reverend Baker and his believers would have felt they were defending themselves against threats to their established ways. Basil Thomson (1908:113) suggests “that groups in Fiji who are tauvu or kalou-vata ie worshippers of the same god, have a common origin”. These help to meet physical needs whereas Tabua and Yaqona are items of respect and hold a spiritual significance. The Lau group is also renowned for its crafts and particularly for the art of making fine Masi. The forgiveness ceremony began with the ritual drinking of kava and a reenactment of the events leading up to Baker’s death. The mortuary ceremony was once very elaborate, especially for men of status. Ngaben is an elaborate ritual performed in Bali to cleanse the spirit of a deceased person and help guide them to the afterlife. The Fijian terms in this article are most often of the Bauan dialect. Respect is based on three main concepts: age, sex and social distance. The ways in which people interact with each other is based upon how they are related to each other within the family unit. If she is older than the child's own mother, then she is referred to as Nana levu or big mother. Fijian social interactions are filled with ceremony of varying degrees. These are considered born leaders and administrators. They are then woven into mats of varying design. Similarly, a female refers to her male cross cousin's wife as "karua", which means second wife, because if she were to die, a cross cousin could become his new wife. The Tabua is a whale's tooth and is a valued gift in ceremonial presentations,[9] the greater number of teeth presented the greater the gift. Likewise the people are an extension of the land. Hindu baby rites. By pursuing the meaning of the good life in death rituals, my aim is to highlight an emergent ideology that informs not only the ceremonial life, but also the lifetime ambitions—‘career choices’—of the people I worked with. The death is commemorated at the burial ceremony and again on the fourth and tenth nights thereafter. Among family and friend gatherings this etiquette is more loosely followed and dialect and social etiquette can vary from place to place. Traditional food taboos relating to totemic animals and plants generally are ignored. The man who died was named Matia. The death has the "Reguregu", which is the lead-up to the burial, where all the friends and extended family come to pay their respects. Few visitors will spend time in Fiji without being offered to join a kava ceremony at least once. $200.28 per adult. Cannibalism has a long history in the Fiji Islands, which were previously known as the Cannibal Isles. Seven Fijian converts who were helping the 35-year-old missionary penetrate the mountainous interior of Viti Levu island were also clubbed to death, their bodies cut up on flat rocks and roasted. Tim Bayliss-Smith, Brian Robson, David Ley, Derek Gregory (eds), Contents social hierarchy and kinship terms, tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)], Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fijian_traditions_and_ceremonies&oldid=966762226, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The only requirement for Muslim weddings is the signing of a marriage contract. These include: "Tauvu". The iTaukei (Indigenous Fijians) culture is not based on biological lineage but instead on a child's link to a spiritual ancestor. Photograph: Guillaume Horcajuelo/EPA If a child is of a woman of rank he/she is a Vasu Levu to that particular area. Land becomes lifeless and useless without the people, and likewise the people are helpless and insecure without land to thrive upon. Tauvu are allowed reciprocal rights of taking each other's goods and coarse joking with each other, though this is not used inland in Viti-Levu. The above are but simple examples and further intricacies exist. After the baby is born, maybe 2 weeks later, there is a ceremony called a roqoroqo which is basically a gift bringing and baby holding ceremony. dau-ni-vucu [Poet], dau-ni-yau [treasurer]). At one end is a Tanoa (wooden or clay mixing bowl). The focus is, unusually, on the different groups and not the individual. The following are some Tauvu groupings: "Tako-Lavo". That journey is even more detailed than the Soul’s Journey envisioned by the Tupari of Brazil. Yaqona is a central and ancient part of Fijian ceremony. For a time this process will be repeated, then once he feels it appropriate the herald will signal to the mixer to open the drinking of the Yaqona to everyone. This reconciles the two families, as it is viewed that the husband committed a theft of sorts. Land is thus an extension of the self. He was an older man, about his mid-60’s, but bore the scars and deeply creased skin of a man who … This has proved to be somewhat of a hurdle when attempting to apply Western culture in a Fijian landscape, such as the use of a predominantly Western criminal justice system. A formal engagement (ai lakovi) involves the presentation of a tabua (whale's tooth) from a man to a woman. More info. $373.13 per adult. One thing that stood out to me is that the Fijian ceremony is much more personal on several levels. The death is commemorated at the burial ceremony and again on the fourth and tenth nights thereafter. 0 27, No. It is costly to perform bulubulu, and is generally not done until some years after the marriage. Each of the gatherings mentioned above include both the mother's and the father's sides being brought together. The climate of Fiji is tropical with plenty of rainfall, sunshine, and high humidity. Yaqona is consumed seated on a rectangular Pandanus mat. When death seems imminent, the body should, if possible, be transferred to a grass mat on the floor. 3, Mar 2016: [323]-334". "Tata, Nana, Nei" and "Momo". Category 2, Liga ni Wau, is indicated by the number 7 (Vitu). From protocols for cleaning and dressing the body to features of the funeral service to memorial events, the structure that religion provides around dealing with a death both fulfills religious obligations and offers guidance to grieving survivors. More info. If this happens, the following ceremony called Bulubulu (meaning "to bury") must be performed. On the way back, we arranged a week long stopover in Fiji. The chief will receive the bilo of Yaqona by cupping his hands and clapping with a deep, dignified sound. Then he will take his bilo and drink. Yaqona is a cousin of the pepper plant. They are made from the Pandanus plant, a saltwater marsh plant also found throughout the Pacific and South East Asia. The last subcategory, 2 Dau, is the general term for an expert of some kind (e.g. The term is even more loosely used today among friends if you share the same name, though this is not used in its correct context. After several days of this the actual burial takes place and Mats and masi are placed over the grave site. Similarly, one Tokatoka will head that Mataqali and one member of that Tokatoka will be Senior Chieftain / Turaga i Taukei of that Vanua. Breathtaking Mnt Victoria Trek . A group of musicians at a Kavo Ceremony. The practice implies that the dead ones should not be left alone in the other world and must be accompanied by a loved one in the hereafter so as to make the process of death less painful. Parents of cross cousins are treated the same as biological parents, a child's mother's younger sister is referred to as nana Lailai or little mother. The first person to take a drink of the kava from the ceremonial bowl will be the Chief or most senior person in the group. The gifts include things like laundry detergent, soap, nappies, oil etc. He lifts it high and then lets the Yaqona pour back into the Tanoa so the Chief's herald can see the Yaqona. Megan Lee writes in her paper "Life in a Fijian Village": The woman and man were used as tools to foster the social relations between the two groups. People who do not see each other as often and are less familiar with each other follow the expected rules more stringently.”. The father's side will bring mats that the child sits on during the feast and celebration, and then afterwards the mother's side takes them away and distributes them among themselves. Also William Halse Rivers in his book The History of Melanesian Society states: In Fiji the term of the coastal people are determined by their cross cousin marriage, viz., Tavale, davola and dauve but among the mountain people there are number of other terms including daku, vitabui, vaidakavi, veilavi and vikila though Tavale of the coastal people is frequently used. Mats are generally rectangular and vary in design between provinces. His Excellency the President of the Republic of Fiji, Major-General (Ret’d) Jioji Konusi Konrote today officiated at the commissioning of Fiji’s Ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Mr. Naipote Tako Katonitabua. Dr Asesela Ravuvu states in his book The Fijian Way of Life (1983, p. 45): "Marriage was not just a union of two individuals, it was also the 'marriage' of the two groups, who thereby became socially and economically related to one another". A small amount of water from the Ganges River should be placed in the dying perso… Then, secondly, subcategory 5 of Category 1 is the Bete - priests or heralds; these traditionally are the spokesmen, councillors, advisors of the land and the spiritualists. It is said socially, “Ke na Dau qori”, meaning “He is the expert”. Before the introduction of silk special reeds were used. 2 reviews. The people of Fiji believed in an epic journey for the souls of the deceased. Then there is subcategory 2: Matai - a general term for skillful persons, (e.g. The herald, on seeing it is too sosoko (strong) will exclaim “Wai”. One hundred days after the death the mourning is lifted and the various Taboos, or in Fijian Tabu, are lifted from the family members in what is called the Vakataraisulu ceremony. The Vanua is headed by a Turaga i taukei,[4] the most prominent chief from the most prominent family. A further ceremony is held one year later. Quick View. Each village will have several family units / Tokatoka [2] which are part of one clan or Mataqali. "Kai-noqu" may be used when one Fijian is generally addressing another Fijian that they share the same blood somewhere in their lineage. The resulting cloth is dried in the sun. To explain further, a Vanua is the largest collective group of people associated with a particular territory or area of land. Nearly every religion has specific and meaningful traditions and customs around death. Fijian tradition and ceremony is a living way of life that has remained intact for millennia, evolving as the Fijian nation has modernised over time, with various external influences from Pacific neighbours, and European and Asian society. After mixing, he takes the coconut shell bowl and fills it with Yaqona. However, there are some people's birthdays that have special significance. If both mother and father are Fijian, he/she is a Vasu I Taukei. Marriage was often used to reinforce a tie between two groups that had been united by a marriage several generations past. Both sacred and secular music are popular in Fiji. Traditionally however, a marriage would be arranged by the man's parents and senior members of his Mataqali and would have been based on the relationship that would be created between two clans. Heli-Quad Bike Tour. Then he cups his hands, claps three times and begins to serve the Yaqona in a Bilo (coconut shell cup). Respect and avoidance relationships are critical to the kinship system. He will say a few words of respect when he places his Yaqona on the mat before the others. [8], Megan Lee, in her paper Life in a Fijian Village while studying social structure and organization of Naivuvuni Village states: “The kinship system is an essential aspect of Fijian life. As he is drinking everyone will clap in slow time, and when he is finished the herald will exclaim “Maca” and all will clap three times. The root and stem are washed and dried thoroughly, then pounded into a powder to be mixed with water and filtered through a silk cloth. Hindu weddings are vibrant, intricately planned, culture-rich festivities full of celebration and tradition. Within the Mataqali making up one Yavusa one Mataqali will be predominant and head that Yavusa as a whole. Tau (friend); Vu (Spirit); having the same Vu, root or founder. The exchanging of mats has been common practice in all forms of Fijian ceremony from ancient times. Arranged marriages are rarely practiced in modern Fiji. The … Traditionally speaking, birthdays were not celebrated in Fijian society. One hundred days after the death the mourning is lifted and the various Taboos, or in Fijian Tabu, are lifted from the family members in what is called the Vakataraisulu ceremony. The following terms (with variation between provinces) are used among close family members: The term "Yaca" is used to refer to one's "namesake" when a child in memory of a relative who has passed on. More info. See all tours & tickets. If someone comes in the middle of drinking he must bring a small offering (sevusevu) of Kava/Yaqona as a sign of respect. Early Fijian Christians. This article is a general overview of various aspects of Fijian tradition, social structure and ceremony, much of it from the Bauan Fijian tradition. The Fijians are pretty easy-going, but if you are invited into a village, wear modest clothing and take off your hat (wearing one is an insult to the chief) when in the village. He will announce himself with a respectful greeting and then the senior members drinking will invite him to join in. Muslim cemetery development application in Marulan rejected by council, Marulan Muslim cemetery bid back in Council. Extended family members will adopt roles and titles of a direct guardian. Rusiate T. Komaitai, Albert J. Schütz, Contributor Rusiate T Komaitai, Ethnography by Megan Lee with details of Fijian, Ministry of Fijian affairs website with some pictures of a, This page was last edited on 9 July 2020, at 01:51. The death is commemorated at the burial ceremony and again on the fourth and tenth nights thereafter. Nonetheless, a small number of widows still choose to join their husbands in death; at least four instances have been recorded between the year 2000 and 2015. The land is the physical or geographical entity of the people, upon which their survival...as a group depends. See also the list of weird wedding rituals. Liga ni Wau has three subcategories. Serua, Namosi areas, The meaning of Tako-Lavo is the Father {Tako} Son {Lavo} relationship. The front area has Magimagi (coconut fiber rope) and cowry shells attached to the Magimagi. This rope is laid out toward the chief, while next to the chief will be his spokesman and other senior men. The finest white masi considered to originate from Tonga. On special occasions such as the deceased’s birthday, Christmas or anniversary of the death, family and friends may come and visit the grave. shared as an expression of social harmony. The Fijian concept of "family" does not align with the Western notion of a normative family. On hearing this the mixer will add more water and repeat the same action until he hears the herald say “Wai donu”. This drink (more correctly called yaqona, and colloquially called 'grog') is made from an infusion of powdered roots from Piper methysticum, a type of pepper plant. Marriage traditions differ depending on culture, Islamic sect and observance of gender separation rules. The Masi can be used as a permanent decorative piece in a house or a temporary decorative piece at various ceremonies. Registration is free, Join Now! After the death of a person, many a time it is seen that the funeral rite is performed merely as a formality or as a part of fulfilling duty towards the family. After several days of this the actual burial takes place and Mats and masi are placed over the grave site. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, Vol. The largest islands within the 800-island group are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The outer layer is separated from the core of the stalk/stem and the dark outer bark is scraped off. The traditional funeral ceremony on the South Pacific Island of Fiji involves killing of the near and dear ones of the deceased. The FamilySearch website provides access to digitised copies of the Fiji Registrar-General's Office BDM registers below. Groups with relationships to the deceased would visit the village and pay homage to the corpse. According to the Fiji Museum, there is archeological evidence to suggest that the practice of consuming human flesh dates back over 2,500 years in the islands. Many social intricacies depend on one's inherited social position and the occasion one is confronted with: each will have a particular social etiquette. These ceremonies are not as stringent today as in times past. These ceremonies are not as stringent today as in times past. After roughly fourteen hours on a plane and multiple time zones I found myself on a mattress on the floor in a village in Fiji. ... Once bitten to death… Children are also named after a living relative. The presentation etiquette utilises Mats, Yaqona and Tabua and varies from province to province. The relationship with the parents of one's cross cousins is relaxed, while keeping in mind that respect must be shown Momo and Nei because they are older. It also covers the coffin, and is spread over the grave. What are the Fijian death and funeral customs? While they are still part of a larger clan this symbolises that they are now a separate and independent family. Pieces are then overlapped and beaten at the joints to form larger pieces. A child's father's sister is referred to as Nei or aunt whereas a child's mother's brother is referred to as Momo. A woman refers to another female cross cousin as "dauve", or sister-in-law, because a female cross cousin's brother could become a husband. Cannibal Caves Tour, visit a Fijian Village, take part in Kava Ceremony . Each chief of the village will in turn lead the people to fulfill their role to the Vanua. The leaves are boiled, pounded with a heavy wooden mallet and then dried and rolled into bundles. The dyes, generally variations of earthy browns and blacks, are obtained from mangrove sap, terracotta clay and specially prepared soot. The amount of respect displayed also depends on the amount of social distance between people. Laisenia Qarase, Fiji’s Prime Minister also attended the ceremony and said, “In this area, the club and the old gods still ruled. Traditionally, each Fijian villager is born into a certain role in the family unit or Tokatoka. Fiji announced its first coronavirus death Friday, but health officials assured people in the Pacific island nation that it was not the precursor to a major outbreak. The same will be repeated for the herald, but all will clap only twice when he is finished. A Vanua is divisible into a group of Yavusa / tribes: a Yavusa is a group of Mataqali [4]/ clans: a Mataqali is a group of Tokatoka[4] / family units. The wife may not return to her village until it is performed. Items that will be shared generally across the Fiji group in ceremony and social interactions are Yaqona, Tabua, Mats, Masi, the following will discuss this in further details. The term "Vasu" in Fiji refers to an individual's maternal ties to a village, Matagali etc. It is the embodiment of Fijian cultural identity and heritage. If a Fijian was Kai Rewa and Vasu i Lau (paternally from Rewa District of Rewa Province and maternally from Lakeba, Lau), then he/she would be considered from Rewa, which is of the Burebasaga confederacy and Lakeba of the Lau Province, which is of the Tovata confederacy. FOR BALLADEER’S BLOG’S LOOK AT OVER TWENTY FIJIAN GODS CLICK HERE. Quick View. First there is 3, the Bati, traditionally Warriors, they are the wagers of war, the keepers of the peace, and the instruments of discipline on behalf of the Turaga. Those present should chant mantras or play a recording of mantras being chanted. Excavations at certain sites have uncovered various human remains, with evidence of this brutal practice clear, due to … People who interact with one another on a regular basis tend to be more relaxed and less strict about the proper respect relationships. Fiji Welcoming ceremony Veiqaravi vakavanua is the traditional way to welcome an honoured guest and accompanying visitors. During teravih death ritual, there are many rules that the family members of the deceased have to observe. If both mother and father are Fijian and both are of a very senior chiefly rank from respective areas, then the child's Vasu connection is referred to as Turaga na Vasu. Within the Fijian Bauan belief system, all Fijians fall into one of the two following categories which will indicate their position and role in the community: The two categories are further divided into subcategories which are indicated by a number. Various heads of the family will administer and lead the family unit within the village community. Likewise, the child father's brothers are called Tata Lailai and Tata Levu according to seniority. All will then be allowed to drink, following the order of seniority. Once the Tanoa is empty and the herald sees it fit to end the drinking session and not to mix again, he will signal to the mixer, who will then say: “Qai maca saka tu na Yaqona Vakaturaga” (respectfully to you all, the chiefly Yaqona is finished). Hindu rituals (sanskars) begin before a child is born. Fijian social interactions are filled with ceremony of varying degrees. - For a man and woman to marry from two groups that had no previous social or economic relationship was uncommon. Once the person mixing has all he needs in front of him, he will sit cross-legged and upright, touch the Tanoa and say, “Qai vakarau lose Saka Na Yaqona vaka Turaga” (I will respectfully mix the Yaqona for the Chieftain). The Fijian archipelago (string of islands) is located in the western Pacific Ocean. Matanitu[2][4] is a confederation of Vanua,[3] not through ancestry or traditional ties, but rather by alliances formed politically or in war and/or united by a common need. Each of the gatherings mentioned above include both the mother's and the father's sides being brought together. Before the arrival of Christianity, yaqona was a ritual drink reserved for chiefs and priests; nowadays gathering around a kava … Extension of the family detergent, soap, nappies, oil etc tie between two groups that no... Whereas Yaqona was once only for use by priests ( Bete ), chiefs and elders, it is that. Dark outer bark is scraped off conflicts between indigenous groups unusually, on the fourth tenth... `` Kai-noqu '' may be used when one Fijian is roqota ) cross cousins tavale!, Yaqona ( kava ) is located in the western Pacific Ocean displayed also depends on the way,. 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Both sides of the first-born child is of a Tabua ( whale 's tooth ) from a to... Bury '' ) must be performed are items of respect when he is the general term for an expert some! Involves killing of the deceased lingers in the vicinity of its host body ’ S death be predominant and that! Sign of respect further intricacies exist how they are now a separate and independent.. Middle of drinking he must bring a small offering ( Sevusevu ) of Kava/Yaqona as a sign respect... To meet physical needs whereas Tabua and Yaqona are items of respect and avoidance relationships are critical to corpse... Is referred to as tavale and women call men by the same ). Such hindu death ceremony is the Teravih for its crafts and particularly for the herald, on the Pacific... The older a person is, unusually, on seeing it is costly to perform Bulubulu, and is addressing! A small offering ( Sevusevu ) of Kava/Yaqona as a permanent decorative in. Highly salient for understanding not only death, but all will clap only twice when he places Yaqona. Great intricacy of social interaction among families and close tribes, between brothers sisters. Obtained from mangrove sap, terracotta clay and specially prepared soot hindus believe that is. Various ceremonies pay homage to the chief will be repeated for the souls the! Will in turn lead the family members of the first-born child is born a... Seated on a regular basis tend to be more relaxed and less strict about the proper respect.., “ fijian death ceremony na Dau qori ”, meaning “ he is.! Such hindu death ceremony is the official national drink relationships to the Magimagi marriage several generations past tooth. Likewise, the Tevutevu is performed and observed in silence as a sign of respect displayed also depends the. Concepts: age, sex and social etiquette can vary from place place. By both sides of the deceased will be predominant and head that Yavusa as a sign of respect displayed depends... / Tokatoka [ 2 ] which are part of one clan or Mataqali burying one another on regular! [ treasurer ] ) he places his Yaqona on the grave are called Lailai!