dead organic matter, feeding on other living organisms (including each other), and/or interacting cooperatively with other organisms. Harmful effects of soil pollution and remedial thinking ... Plants absorb water from the soil through the roots and animals also find their food from the soil. Soil bacteria and fungi are encouraged by ground cover and organic matter inputs. Soil organisms can be divided into three groups: Directly or indirectly beneficial, neutral and harmful. Soil Microbiology It is branch of science dealing with study of soil microorganisms and their activities in the soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties form a very small fraction of soil mass (volume of less than 1%) In the upper layer of soil (top soil up to 10-30 cm depth i.e. Water-logging in rice fields will increase nitrogen losses due to de-nitrification. They are root nodule bacteria. This microorganism is fixing less amount of nitrogen than Azotobacter because of anaerobic fermentation releases only a small amount of energy. The soil is also home to many different types of living things. Therefore, managing soil to increase beneficial soil microbes only increases plant health and plant vitality, create improved disease resistance, increase root growth, builds healthy soil components and more. These creatures that live in the soil range in size, since they can be microscopic cells (such as bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa) up to more complex organisms like earthworms and insects. They take part in the decomposing of organic material to form the humus. How soil microorganisms directly or indirectly affect plant growth and health determines if they are considered beneficial, harmful, or insignificant to plants. The organisms which are found in the soil are called as the soil organisms; The soil microorganisms maintain the right environment for the plant to grow well. They prefer usually neutral or slightly alkaline’ soil. The strains of Rhizobium and their association with leguminous crops are given below: When a legume is introduced in a new locality, it is necessary to inoculate the seed with proper Rhizobium culture otherwise crop may not produce nodules and not thrive. They produce nitrogenous compound (available form of nitrogen) and supply to the leguminous host plants. Further, they enhance soil water retention and also involved in disease suppression. These organisms are of two types based on their size as. For simplicity, soil organisms are often subdivided into groups based on their size or functional roles within soil food webs . Soil pollution, also known as soil contamination, is caused due to the presence of human-made chemicals in the soil at harmful concentrations.Common soil contaminants include heavy metals, solvents, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, and herbicides. Autotrophic bacteria (sulphur bacteria) oxidised sulphur into sulphate form. The root cortical cell walls of host plants are penetrated by the hyphae of VA mycoorhizae. Denitrifying bacteria that live in the soil under anaerobic condition which convert available nitrogen to unavailable form (molecular nitrogen or oxides of nitrogen) and hence, undesirable in agriculture. dead organic matter, feeding on other living organisms (including each other), and/or interacting cooperatively with other organisms. In the absence of proper Rhizobium culture, the seed can be mixed with the soil obtained from an area where the particular group of legumes grow well. Overview of The Living Cover Crop, Soil Organisms Microorganisms although invisible to the naked eye, soil microorganisms are an important part of the below-ground community in farm soils, and they are a potentially valu-able asset to the grower. In water-logged rice field, algae grow well and fix about 20-30 kg nitrogen per hectare. 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